成人高考历年命题     |      2020-10-10 16:30
  Ⅰ.Phonetics(5 points)
  Directions:In each of the following groups of words,there are four underlined letters or letter combinations marked A,B,C and D.Compare the under fined parts and identify the one that is different from the others in pronunciation.Mark your answer by blackening the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet.
  1.A.captain    B.sustain   C.contain  D.retain
  2.A.pension    B.mission   C.tension  D.revision
  3.A.actress     B.business  C.excess   D.endless
  4.A.combination ?B.climbing  C.bamboo   D.ambition
  5.A.blew        B.crew      C.sew      D.Jew
  II. Vocabulary and Structure( 15 points)
  Directions: There are 15 incomplete sentences in this section. For each  sentence there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose one answer that best completes the sentence and blacken the corresponding letter  on the Answer Sheet.
  6.I asked two passers-by how to get to the new railway station, but_______of them knew it.
  A.none    B.either   C.neither    D.both
  7. — The boss wants to talk to you. He seems unhappy with your performance.
  — Oh,I_______be in trouble. I hope he won't fire me.
  A.must    B.can    C.should    D. would
  8._______my daughter reaches the age of eighteen she can apply for driving license.
  A.Unless    B.Because    C.Since    D.Once
  9. I'll consider_______Ms. Smith tonight,but I am not sure if I have the time.
  A.to see   B.seeing   C.to have seen   D.see
  10. The train_______to arrive at 11: 30, but it was an hour late.
  A.was supposed   B.is supposed   C.supposes   D.supposed
  11. Bob doesn't look his age. I think he's somewhere_______.
  A. in forty   B. in forties   C. in his forty  D. in his forties
  12. I feel very excited_______the thought of joining my family in a week.
  A.on   B.for   C.at   D.in
  13._______a hotel, we looked for somewhere to have dinner.
  A.Finding   B.Having found   C.We finding   D.We found
  14. Despite the sudden breakdown of the General Manager, _______work is going on in the company.
  A. usual   B. routine   C. normal   D. regular
  15.At such a time of crisis,we must try to_______all differences and stick together.
  A. set apart   B. set back   C. set aside   D. set down
  16. Many governments are now taking_______to reduce smoking in public places.
  A.steps   B.sides   C.effect   D.change
  17. The employees_______more enthusiastic about their work since their pay rose.
  A.are   B. have been   C. were   D. will be
  18.Children don't understand  initially  what they are reciting, but_______it will have an impact on their thinking.
  A.casually   B.especially   C.regularly   D.gradually
  19.The university regulations require that the students_______at least   90% of the lectures.
  A.attended   B.to attend   C.would attend   D.attend
  20. In October 2007, the Chang'e-1 satellite was successfully _______at Xichang.
  A.launched   B.presented   C.regulated    D.engaged
  Ⅲ . Cloze(30 points)
  Directions: For each blank in the following passage, there are four   choices marked A, B,C and D. Choose the one that is most suitable and  mark your answer by blackening the corresponding letter on the Answer  Sheet.
  The destruction of habitats(栖息地) all over the world is the primary reason species are becoming extinct(  灭绝 ) or endangered.Houses,highways dams,industrial buildings, and ever-spreading- farms now dominate____21___formerly occupied by forests  , deserts , and wetlands.___22____the beginning of European settlement in America,____23___over 65, 000,000 acres of wetlands have been drained. One million acres alone vanished____24___1985 and 1995.
  Habitat destruction can be____25___or it can be subtle occurring over a___26____period of time without being noticed. ___27____such as sewage from cities and chemical runoff from farms, can change the___28____and quantity of water in streams and rivers. To___29___living in a delicately balanced habitat, this disturbance can be as____30___as the clear-cutting of a rainforest.
  ___31___remaining habitats are carved into smaller and smaller pockets  or islands, remaining species  are forced  to exist in these____32___areas, which causes further habitat ___33___.These species become less adaptable to  environmental____34___in fact,they become____35___endangered Scientists believe that when a habitat is cut by 90%, one-half of its plants, animals and   insects will become extinct.  21.A.landscapes    B. cities       C.maps      D. pictures
  22.A.At            B. Before       C.After     D.Since
  23.A.for example   B.in addition   C.at last   D.after all
  24.A.both          B.in            C.between   D.before
  25.A.simple        B.beneficial  C. interesting  D. obvious
  26.A.long          B.short         C.happy      D. sad
  27.A.Construction  B.Pollution     C.Farming    D.Living
  28.A.amount        B.purity        C.nature     D.quality
  29.A.people        B.species       C.plants     D.insects
  30.A.effective     B.small         C. fatal    D.surprising
  31.A.How           B. Whether      C. Before    D. As
  32.A.crowded       B.extensive     C.large      D. bare
  33.A.reform        B.destruction   C.support    D.discovery
  34.A.improvements  B.changes    C.protection  D.development
  35.A.even          B.far           C.more       D.less
  IV. Reading Comprehension( 60 points)
  Directions: There are five reading passages in this part. Each passage  is followed by four questions. For each question there are four suggested answers marked A, B, C and D. Choose the best answer and blacken the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet.
  Passage One
  Woman nabbed for a DUI at same crash spot
  Wed May 21, 2:17 AM ET
  TRUCKEE,Calif.Call it drunken driving deja vu(记忆幻觉). For the  second time in five months , a 23-year-old California woman has been  arrested after she crashed her car while driving under the  influence(DUI)at the exact same spot north of Lake Tahoe.
  And to top it off, Truckee Police say that in both cases, her blood  alcohol content was more than three times the legal limit.
  The police say Melissa  Dennison of  Truckee crashed at about noon on  Sunday on Glenshire Drive just south of the Glenshire Bridge. They say  she was extremely drunk and had trouble standing or walking.Her blood  alcohol level initially was measured at 346. The legal limit.08.
  Sergeant J. Litchie said Dennison also had been charged with a DUI  in January when she crashed at the same spot and registered a blood alcohol  level of 380. If found guilty of the second offense, she faces up to 10 years in prison and fines in excess of 2.000.
  A telephone message the Associated Press left at a listing for Dennison in Truckee on Tuesday was not immediately returned.
  36. Who is the author of the passage?
  A. A passenger.   B. A policeman.
  C. A judge.       D. A journalist.
  37. Why couldn't the woman stand and walk?
  A. She had lost too much blood.
  B. She was scared.
  C. She drank too much.
  D. She had a sudden stomachache.
  38. Why could the woman be imprisoned for 10 years?
  A. She was caught DUI twice.
  B. She had her car crashed.
  C. She refused to take a blood test.
  D. She drove without driving license.s
  39. What does the word"nabbed"in the title mean?
  A. Arrested.   B. Attacked.   C. Charged.   D. Punished.
  Passage Two
  There were many different cultures in the ancient world, but the  two that had the most influence on European and American civilizations were the Greek and the Roman.Often these two cultures  are lumped together in our minds, as if they were really exactly alike. But that is not the   case. In many ways the Greeks and the Romans could not have been more  different.              The Greeks were truly democratic, often  without  a single leader but instead governed by a group of men chosen by the people. The Romans were  semi-democratic. They had a governing  Senate,  but the political power was mostly or completely in the hands of a single emperor.
  Both cultures were great builders. But the construction interests   of the two cultures were also different. The Greeks tended to be more   artistic. Their buildings were well constructed and they were especially interested in  temples, columns, and decorative forms. The Romans, on the other hand, were more engineers than artists. They concentrated their   efforts on urban planning, well-functioning water pipes, and the best roads.
  Only in cooking and eating habits are the two cultures really similar. Both peoples ate very well indeed: lots of fish, fresh vegetables and fruits, healthy  meals, holding at  the same time long discussions and tasting excellent wines.            In fact, it  would probably  be fair to say that they both loved life in their warm,sea-oriented climates and they both lived a full life.
  40. What is the first paragraph about?
  A. The Greek and the Roman were similar.
  B. People misunderstood European civilization.
  C.Greek civilization was quite different from Roman civilization.
  D. European civilization influenced American civilization greatly.
  41. Which of the following is TRUE?
  A. The Romans had more political awareness.
  B. The Romans had less political freedom and democracy.
  C.The Romans had more freedom to choose their leader.
  D. The Romans had fewer people elected into the government.
  42. What were the Greeks famous for?
  A. The overall planning of a city or a town.
  B. The artistic decoration of the buildings.
  C. The practical functions of the buildings.a
  D. The system of water supply and transportation.
  43. How are the two cultures alike?
  A. Both loved the sea.
  B. Both lived long lives.
  C. Both loved cooking
  D. Both enjoyed talking over meals.
  Passage Three
  As recently as three decades ago, many Americans believed  that using credit was an unwise and dangerous way to pay for what they bought. Some  even thought  that owing money to a store  or a credit company was something to be ashamed of. Good citizens, they believed, always bought what they  wanted with real money and they paid the full price immediately.
  Today,however,all that has changed.Credit,as some observers have noted, has become a way of life in the United States. More and more Americans now are depending on those small pieces  of plastic, credit cards, to  pay for large purchases such as  televisions, record players   or furniture.  Many people today would consider  it  unusual not to use a credit card to pay for a costly restaurant dinner, a hotel room or an airline   trip. And there are some situations in which Americans must have credit  cards. If they want the temporary use of a car, for example, they first   must give the car rental company the number of their credit card. That  number is considered a guarantee that they will return the car and pay  Credit cards offer two major services to Americans. First of all,   they are easier and safer to carry than large amounts of money. Second,  they permit people to borrow, to have the immediate pleasure of owning  something, even if they do not have enough money to pay for  it at the time. With credit cards people pay for  goods or services at the end of each month
  instead of when they buy them. And when the time does come to pay, most credit cards offer people a choice. They can pay all of what they owe for the month or they can just pay usually between 5 and 10 percent of what  they owe.
  44. What do Americans feel about using credit cards nowadays according to the passage?
  A. They consider it valuable.
  B. They regard it as a shame.
  C. They think it dangerous.
  D. They find it quite convenient.
  45. Why does the car rental company ask for the credit card number?
  A. To prevent the overuse of the car.
  B. To make sure that the car won't be damaged.
  C. To make sure the user return the car and pay for using it.
  D. To ensure that the car is safely and timely returned.
  46. What advantage can credit card holders have?
  A. They can choose not to pay for their purchases.
  B. They can easily borrow money at a lower interest.
  C. They can own something before they actually pay for it.
  D. They can pay only a small amount of what they owe.
  47. What is the best title for the passage?
  A. Credit-a Way of Life in America
  B. Credit Services in America
  C. Convenience of Living in America
  D. History of Credit Cards in America
  Passage Four
  At the 1893 Columbian Exposition, a World Fair held in Chicago, chocolate-making machinery made in Germany was displayed. It caught the  eye of M. S. Hershey, who saw the potential for chocolate. He installed  chocolate machinery in his factory in Lancaster, and produced his first  chocolate bars in 1894.
  Other Americans began mixing in other  materials to makeup new candy  bars throughout the end of the 1890's and the early 1900's. But it was  World War I that really brought attention to the candy bar.
  The U. S. Army Quartermaster Corps  requested various American  chocolate manufacturers to  provide 20 to  40 pound blocks of chocolate to  be shipped to quartermaster bases. The blocks were cut into smaller  distributed to American soldiers in Europe. Eventually the task  of making  smaller pieces was turned back to the manufacturers. By the end of the war when the soldiers arrived home, the American candy bar business was  assured. Why?Because the returning soldiers had grown fond of chocolate candy and wanted more of the same. As a result from that time on and through the 1920's, candy bar manufacturers became established throughout the United States, and as many as 40, 000 different candy bars appeared on the scene.
  The original candy bar industry had its start on the eastern coast in such cities as Philadelphia, Boston, and New York. The industry soon  spread to the Midwest because shipping and raw materials such as sugar, corn syrup, and milk were easily available. Chicago became the seat of the candy bar industry and is even today an important base.
  48. Why did M. S. Hershey start the production of chocolate bars?
  A. He was deeply impressed by the Columbian Exposition.
  B. He realized that it was possible for chocolate to become popular
  C. There was nothing to produce in his factory in Lancaster.
  D. He was interested in the chocolate machinery displayed at the fair
  49. Which event brought the booming of American candy bar business?
  A. The adding of new materials.
  B. The demand in the army during WWI.
  C. The purchase of new machines
  D. The appearance of smaller candy bars.
  50. What does the underlined word "seat"in the last paragraph most probably mean?
  A. Focus.   B. Position.   C. Chair.   D. Center
  51. What is this passage mainly about?
  A. World Fair held in Chicago in 1893.
  B. The popularity of the American candy bar industry.o
  C. The candy bar industry during World War.
  D. The spread of the candy bar business to the Midwest.
  Passage Five
  Mark Twain is one  of America's much-beloved authors, creating  imaginative and humorous classics for children and adults alike, such as  The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, The Prince and The Pauper,and Adventures  of Huckleberry Finn.
  Twain passed away in  1910, leaving behind a treasure  of great literature. But now, 100 years after his death, he'll have a  brand-new book on the shelves: a three-volume autobiography.  Twain hasn't been keeping busy in his tomb it was his wish that  publishers wait until 100 years after his death to publish his memoirs )  which he spent the last decade of his life working on.
  The autobiography totals more than  5,000 pages,  and likely won't  be  all sunshine and roses. It seems that Twain harbored some bitterness  against former girlfriends and ex-friends. He also writes negatively  about politicians of his day, such as Teddy Roosevelt. It's likely that he requested such a long lead time for  the  memoirs because he didn't want to hurt the feelings of anyone mentioned in this work.
  Although small sections of the memoirs have been previously published the autobiography has never been available in full, and should provide great insights into the man behind the classic books. The first   volume of the set  will be available in November, and the trilogy is being published by the University of California, Berkeley.
  "There are so many biographies of Twain, and many of them have used bits and pieces of the autobiography", editor Robert Hirst told The   Independent. "But biographers pick and choose what bits to quote. By   publishing Twain's book in full we hope that people will be able to come to their own complete conclusions about what sort of a man he was."
  52. According to Paragraph 1, which of the statements is TRUE of Mark Twain?
  A. He left behind lots of money.
  B. His works were written for children.
  C. His works are full of adventures.
  D. He is famous for his great works.
  53. What can we learn about Mark Twain's autobiography from the passage?
  A. It has been published against Twain's will.
  B. It shows Twain's respect for politicians.
  C. It will be published in full.
  D. It has been recently finished.
  54. What does the underlined word "trilogy" in Paragraph 4 mean?
  A. work in three volumes.
  B. An imaginative work.
  C. collection of stories.
  D. Memoirs of famous people.
  55. What is the purpose of publishing Twain's autobiography?
  A. To supplement other biographies.
  B. To help readers to understand Mark Twain.
  C. To introduce Mark Twain's works.
  D. To expose new discoveries about Mark Twain
  V. Daily Conversation(15 points)
  Directions: Pick out appropriate expressions from the eight choices below and complete the following dialogues by blackening the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet.
  A. When shall we set off
  B. What is the time
  C. have a wonderful time
  D. start packing
  E. be great fun
  F. What could I get
  G. What should I take
  H. where to
  Mary: How do you like the idea of having a picnic this Saturday?  John: Wonderful. But____56____?
  Mary: What about the Blue Mountain It's quite cool there.
  John: That's a good idea. Shall we invite Michael and his girlfriend to go with us?
  Mary: Sure! It would____57____to have them with us.
  John: Good!____58____?
  Mary: You could buy some drinks and sandwiches. And some fruit, too.
  Mary: How about 8 o'clock in the morning? It takes about two hours to get there.
  John: OK.I'll call Michael and tell him about our plan.We sure  will____60____.
  VI. Writing(25 points)  Directions: For this part, you are supposed to write an essay in English in 100-120 words based on the following information. Remember to write  it clearly.  61. 你 ( Li Yuan)的同学王晶打算在校内找一份临时工作,给她写一封电子邮件,内容包括 :
  ·你从校园网上获得图书馆招工的信息 ; 招聘人数为 5~10 人;
  ·对应聘人员的要求 ( 如必须是本校学生、可周末上班等 );
  ·面试时间和地点 ;
  【解析】句意:我会考虑今晚去看史密斯小姐,但我不确定我有没有时间。consider 后面需要接动名词形式,故选B。
  【解析】句意:那趟火 车应该十一点半到,但是它晚了一个小时。be supposed to do sth. 意为应该做某事”,又因为本句时态为一般过去时,故选A。
  【解析】句意:鲍勃看起来不像他那个年纪的样子。我觉得他已经四十多岁了。in one's forties意为“四十多岁”,故选D。
  【解析】句意:一想到一周后就能和家人在一起,我就很激动。be excited at sth.意为“对某事感到兴奋”,故选C。
  【解析】句意:尽管总经理突然离职了,但公司的日常工作仍在进行。routine 意为“常规的,日常的”,routine work意为“日常工作”,故选B。
  【解析】句意:在这么 危急的时刻,我们必须抛开所有的差异,团结起来。set apart意为“留出”,set back意为“推迟”,set aside意为“把.....放在一边”,set down意为“放下,下车”。结合句意,故选C。
  【解析】句意:许多政府正在采取措施,减少公共场所的吸烟行为。take steps 意为“采取措施”,故选A。
  【解析】句意:大学的规定要求学生至少要参加90%的课程。require 表示“要求”,后面接that从句时谓语动词要用虚拟语气,结构为“should+动词原形”,should可以省略,故选D。
  【解析】句意:2007年10月,嫦娥一号卫星在西昌成功发射。launched 意为“发射”,presented意为“提出,呈现”, regulated意为“规定,管理”,engaged意为“从事,占用。根据句意,故选A。
  【解析】空格后所说的森林、沙漠和湿地都是陆地上的风景、风貌,这里是说森林、沙漠和湿地都被房屋、公路、水坝、工业建筑、农场代替了。landscapes有““风景”的意思,符合题意。cities 意为“城市”,maps意为“地图”, pictures意为“图画,照片”。
  【解析】前一句讲到湿地被房屋等替代,后一句讲到欧洲殖民对湿地的破坏,这是对前一句的举例说明。for example 意为“例如”,符合题意。in addition 意为“此外”,at last 意为“结果,终子”,after all意为“毕竟”。
  【解析】空格之后的两个年份之间有and,所以前面要用between, between... and表示“在.....之间”。
  【解析】本句承上启下,or之前的半句指前文所说的短时间内的巨大变化,并且变化是明显的。obvious 意为“明显的" ,符合题意。simple 意为“简单的”, beneficial意为“有益的”, interesting意为“有趣的”。
  【解析】前文提到栖息地的破坏是明显的或者是微妙的,即可能很长时间其变化都没有被注意到。along period表示“很长一段时间”,故选A。
  【解析】城市污水和从田地流出来的化学药物都属于污染,pollution意为“污染”,符合题意,故选B。construction 意为“建造”,farming意为“耕作”,living意为“生活。
  【解析】此处意为:从城市和田地流出的污染物改变了河水的质量和流量。quality and quantity意为“质量和数量”,故选D。
  【解析】 effective 意为“有效的" , small意为“小的”,fatal意为“致命的”,surprising意为“令人吃惊的”。根据句意,故选C。
  【解析】此处意为:物种被迫生活在拥挤的地方,这会进一步导致栖息地的破坏。destruction 意为“破坏”,符合句意。reform意为“改革" , support意为“支持”,discovery意为“发现”。
  【解析】此处意为:这些物种越来越不适应 环境的变化,这里是指栖息地被破坏后的变化。change意为“变化" ,符合语境。improvements 意为“改善”,protection意为“保护”, development意为“发展”,都是指好的方向,不符合语境。
  【解析】环境越来越糟,使这些 物种的处境更加危险。more 放在形容词前表示“爽.....”,故选C。
  【解析】从文章第三段第二句“They say she was extremely drunk and had trouble standing or walking”可知,地站不稳并且不能自己走路是因为醉得太厉害,故选C。
  【解析】从文章第 四段第二句“I found guilty of the second offense, she faces up to 10 years in prison and fines in excess of $2 ,000”可知,她面临10年监禁是因为她两次被抓到醉驾,故选A。
  【解析】题目中的nabbed意为“被逮住的”。选项中,arrested与nabbed意思相同,意为“被逮捕的”,故选A。attacked 意为“被攻击的”,charged意为“被控告的” ,punished意为“被处罚的”。
  【解析】根据文章第三段第三、四句“The Greeks tended to be more artistic ... and decorative forms”可知,希腊的建筑很有艺术风格,有很多艺术装饰,故选B。
  【解析】文章最后两段讲了希腊人和罗马人的相似之处,根据“Both peoples ate very well indeed..excellent wines"可知,他们喜欢边吃边聊,故选D。
  【解析】由文章第三段第三句“they permit people to brow..for it at the time”可知,即使目前不能支付得起,人们仍然可以提前拥有某祥东西,故选C。
  【解析】由文章第一段第二句"It caught the eye of M. S. Hershey, who saw the potential for chocolate”可知,M. s. Hershey开始生产巧克力是因为看到了它的潜力,故选B。
  【解析】由文章第二段第二句“But it was World War that really brought attention to the candy bar.”可知,是第一次世界大战让糖块的生产迅速发展,故选B。
  【解析】文章第四段讲的是生产糖块的主要城市,介绍了其优势条件,最后一句强调了芝加哥是糖块生产的重要基地,结合上下文可知,seat意为“中心,基地”。center 意为“中心”,符合题意,
  【解析】由文章第一 段中的“Mark Twain is one of America '
  $ much-beloved authors, creating imaginative and humorous classics for children and adults alike...”可知,马克·吐温是美国著名的作家,其作品广受成人和孩子的喜爱,故选D。
  【解析】由文章第一 段的最后一句以及第四段的“The first volume of the set will be available in November, and the trilogy is being published by...”可知,马克·吐温的自传会被完整出版,故选C。
  【解析】trilogy 意为“三部曲”,即a work in three volumes,故选A。
  【解析】由文章第四段的“..and should provide great insights into the man behind the classic books"和第五段的“By publishing Twain' 8 book in full, we hope that people will be able to come to their own complete conclusions about what sort of a man he