成人高考历年命题     |      2020-10-10 16:40
I . Phonetics(5 points)
Directions:In each of the following groups of words, there are four underlined letters or letter combinations marked A, B, C and D. Compare the underlined parts and identify the one that is different from the others in pronunciation. Mark your answer by blackening the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet.
1. A. land       B. lamb    C. father  D. ladder
2. A. challenge  B. cheap   C. choose  D. character
3. A. sweat      B. please  C. beat    D. meat
4. A. rescue     B. league  C. pursue  D. argue
5. A. action     B. section  C. solution  D. question
I. Vocabulary and Structure( 15 points)
Directions:There are 15 incomplete sentences in this section. For each sentence there are four choices marked A, B,C and D.Choose one answer that best completes the sentence and blacken the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet.
6. There        no one to help me at this moment, I need to handle the work all by myself.
A. Be      B. being       C.to be       D. been
7. Mary took a part-time job last summer, but her parents were unhappy about        she did.
A. These   B. which    C. that   D. what
8.I did not do well on the writing exam, for the topie to write on was unfamiliar________me.
A. To   B. for    C. with    D. about
9.I can hardly distinguish the two girls, since they look quite________
A. Like    B. unlike      C. alike      D. likely
10. You' d better speak loudly at the meeting_____everyone can hear you.
A. except that     B. such that    
C. in that         D. so that
11. Peter would____stay at home watching TV than go shopping with his mom.
A. Rather  B. quite  C. better  D. still
12. By the time you return in two years, your hometown will____a new look.
A. have taken on         B. take on   
C. have been taken on   D. be taken on
13. Please make sure that your name is entered in the____space when you fill out this form.
A. vacant    B. bare    C. blank    D. empty 
14. Reading aloud every day can be one of the most ____ways to improve your spoken English.
A. evident    B. effective    C. favorite    D. favorable
15. If Peter had told his teacher about his difficulty in math homework,she____him before the exam.
A. helps                B. will help    
C. would have helped    D. would help
16.____ all the difficulties, the researcher continued her research.
A. In case of     B. In spite of   
C. Because of     D. Instead of
17. The organizers of the conference have arranged hotel rooms for those students____ from out of town.
A. to come  B. come   C. coming   D. to have come
18. The job applicant was worried about the interview____ he was well prepared.
A. if   B. because   C. when  D. though
19. It was suggested that this hardworking girl____ an example for other students.
A. be set   B. will be set C. could be set  D. had been set
20. Since computers were introduced, they____ to be useful tools for people weak in math.
A. had proved       B. have proved   
C. will prove       D. are proving
Ⅲ. Cloze(30 points)
Directions :For each blank in the fllowing passage, there are four choices marked A, B,C theD. Choose the one that is most suitable and mark your answer by blackening the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet.
In our online life, we need to use passwords frequently. We use passwords    21    e-mail,gaming sites, social networking sites,and other shopping sites.______22____,the passwords most people use are not very_____23_____and can easily be“"broken" by others. In fact, the most comonly used passwords are so simple that it requires very    24    effort to figure them out. Can you guess    25    the most commonly used passwords are? They are: Names of baseball teams, bith dates of a farmily    26    ,the year of a special sports event,the random numbers like 156468,    27    the name of a friend, pet, favorite TV star, or band.
There are prograrms   28     to break into people' s online accounts. These programs are    29   of trying every word in the English dictionary and the dictionaries    30    many foreign languages, in their effort to break into an account._____31_____can even search words backward. Some will try____32______words or words that are followed by numbers,_____33_____school222. These programs can test millions of passwords in a few minutes. So, you are advised to be careful about_____34_____passwords so that they will be hard to break. You are also advised not to make them
______35____hard to remember. Meanwhile, you need to change them once in a while.
21.A. to          B. with       C.by         D. for
22. A. However     B. Therefore  C. Moreover  D. Besides
23. A. natural     B. safe       C. strange   D. clear
24. A. minor       B. small      C. lttle     D. tiny
25. A. what        B. who        C. where     D. which
26. A. figure      B. member     C. creature  D. character
27. A. as close as B. as good as C.as dear as D.as well as
28. A. formed      B. shaped     C. composed  D. designed
29. A. typical     B. capable    C. sure      D. true
30. A. from        B. with       C.of         D. for
31. A. They        B.It          C. That      D. Those
32. A. added       B. gathered   C. combined  D. collected
33. A. such as     B. except for C. as for    D. as of
34. A. locating    B. searching  C. choosing  D. tracking
35. A. rather      B. too        C. far       D. enough
IV. Reading Comprehension(60 points)
Directions: There are five reading passages in this part. Each passage is fllowed by four questions.
For each question there are four suggested answers marked A, B, C and D. Choose onebest answer and blacken the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet.
Passage One
Sound sleep occurs when one s intermal clock is regulated. Cireadian rhythms (生理节奏) can become compromised quite easily. Many people with sleep troubles tend to vary bedtimes. To avoid thi scommon problem, sleep sufferers shoud go to bed and wake up at the same time every day.To help improve crcadian rhythms ,sufferers should enjoy 15 minutes of sun exposure the first thing in the morming.
A bedtime routine can help prevent insmnia (失眠). One hour before betime, one shoud lower the lights and relax. Reading a book or listening to calm music can help prepare the body for a night's seep. Taking a warm, candlelit bath or drinking a cup of warm milk can also help you prepare for deep sleep at night.
Stress can have a bad efeet on the body and the ability to seep. A daily exercise routine can help lower the body' s stress naturally. One can also manage stres by writing diaris. Writing diaries can help people express their anxieties, plan for the future and improve sleep. Other ways to lower stress include deep breathing exercises and progressive muscle relaxation.
The light sending out from computers, cellphones, tablets and televisions can cause sleep problems. Therefore, these items should be turned off at least an hour before bedtime. Additinally ,lowering the backlight on these electronic devices earlier in the evening can help you fall asleep faster and stay asleep longer once bedtime arrives.
A perfect bedroom invites sweet sleep. Most people sleep better in a cool, dark, and quiet room.Lower the temperature in the room to 16 ~ 20 degrees for a peaceful night's sleep.A dark room can be accomplished by installing light blocking curtains or wearing a sleep mask. Noise can be reduced with either earplugs or a white noise machine. Finally, a comfortable mattress (床垫) and pillows are essential to a good night's sleep.
36. What is the passge mainly about? 
A. How to get a sound sleep.   
B. How to lower body stress
C. How to regulate intemal clocks.  
D. How to manage anxieties.
37. According to Paragraph 2, which of the following may lead to insomnia?
A. Reading a book for relaxation before bedtime.
B. Lowering lights one hour before bedtime.
C. Drinking some warm milk before bedtime.
D. Listening to rock music before bedtime.
38. What can be done to reduce stress?
A. Doing exercise every day
B. Making plans for the future.
C. Writing about your sleep patterns.
D. Learning to hold your breath.
39. What is the perfect condition for sleep?
A. A quiet room with flashing lights.
B. A bright room with white curtains.
C. A cool room with comfortable pillows.
D. A dark room with electronic devices.
Passage Two
Tom was aged four but he was talking like a two-year-old baby. He was saying such things as“kick ball" and “want car”,and using lots of one-word sentences. He should have been saying some really long sentences and telling stories with them. He wasn' t. Something had gone trribly wrong.
Quite a few children have what is called a“language delay". For some reason they don't learn to speak as quickly as they should. Their friends shoot ahead and they’re left behind. As a result, they get very lonely. Nobody wants to talk to you if you can' t talk back.
Can anything be done to help these children? Yes. They can go to see a speech therapist- -a person who's specially trained to work out what' s wrong and who knows how to teach language to children.This is what happened to Tom. The speeh therpist played some games with him and heard how he talked. She made a recording of his speech, and chatted to his mom and dad about his background.They’d taken Tom to see a doctor,but the doctor hadn’t found anything wrong with him.He seemed peretly normal in every way- except he just wasn talking.
Afer Tom and his parents had gone home, the therapist listened carefully to the recording she' d made .Then she looked at a chart which showed how language developed in children aged two,three,and four. She could see Tom was a long way behind.
The next step, she deided, was to teach Tom how to say some new sentences like”kick a red ball,”and”the clown is kicking a ball.”Tom didn’t get the new sentences right straight away.But therapist was very patient,and after a few more visit he started to make progress.
40. How did the author introduce the topic of this passage?
A. By describing grammar errors made by kids.
B. By sharing experiences of speech therapists.
C. By using Tom' s case as an example.
D. By stating his personal views to readers.
41. What can be infered from the passage about “language delay ?
A. It can be prevented by doctors.
B. It is seldom found among children.
C. It can be improved with certain help.
D. It may result from hearing problems.
42. What did the speech therapist do to help Tom?
A. She told others that Tom was normal in every way.
B. She asked Tom to play with some other children.
C. She made some recordings of his parents' speech.
D. She taught Tom new sentences in a patient way.
43. What is the best title for the passage?
A. What Can Doctors Do with Language Delay?
B. What Can Be Done about Kids with Language Delay?
C. How Can Language Delay Be Easily Detected?
D. How Can Parents Prevent Kids from Language Delay?
Passage Three
On a dry and cold Friday afenoon last October, Sharon Seline exchanged text messages with her daugher who was in college. They“chatted”back and forh, with the mom asking how things were going and the daugher answering psitively flowed by enotions (表情符) showing smils, b-i-g smiles and hearts.
Later that night, her daughter attempted suicide.
In the days that followed, it came to light that she' d hidden herself in her dorm, crying and showing signs of depression- a completely  different reality from the one that she conveyed in text and Facebook posts.
As human beings,our only real method of connection is through real communication.Studies show that only7% of communication is based on writing and spraking.The majority of 93% is based on body language.Indeed,it’s only when we can heard a tone of voice or look into someone’s eyes that we’re able to know when“I'm fine" doesn't mean they' re fine all.
This is where social media gets risky.
With modem technology,anyone can hide beind the text,the e-mail,or the Facebook post,projecting any image they want and creating a false image of their choosing.They can be whoever they want to be .And without the ability to receive body language,their audiences are none the wiser. 
This presents a paradox which doesn’t exist before.With all the power social technologies at our fingertips, we are more connected- and potentially more disconnected- than ever betore.
Every relevant metric (衡量标准) shows that we are interacting at a great speed and frequency through social media. But are we really communicating? With 93% of our communication context (语境)lost, we are now attempting to establish relationships and make decisions based on phrases or emoticons,which may or may not accurately represent the truth.
44. Why does social media get risky according to the author?
A. The users’social connection is lost.
B. The users’messages may be ignored.
C. The users' real emotion may be hidden. 
D. The users' voices can hardy be heard.
45. What phenomenon does the underlined word“paradox" ( Paragraph 7) reflect?
A. People can be both happy and unhappy.
B. People can be both connected and disconneted.
C. People can end up being both wise and stupid.
D. People can form both true and false impressions.
46. What is true about today' s communication through social media?
A. It causes more health risks.
B. It gives litle communication context.
C. It leads to better relationships.
D. It improves the quality of interaction.
47. What is the best title for the passage?
A. Social Media and Its Function
B. Social Media and Its Abuses
C. Social Media and Its Future
D. Social Media and Its Risks
Passage Four
Alan Lakein, a time management expert, thinks that nothing is a total waste of time, including doing nothing at times. If you arrange things so that you find time to relax and“do nothing",you will get more done and have more fun doing it.
One of his clients, a space engineer, didn' t know how to “do nothing ”. Every minute of his leisure time was scheduled with intense activities. He had an outdoor-activites schedule in which he switched from skiing to tennis. His girlfriend kept up with him in these activities, although she would have preferred just to sit by the fire and relax once in a while. Like too many people, he felt the need to be doing something all the time, for doing nothing seemed a waste of time. His“relaxing by the fire" consisted of playing chess, reading magazines, or checking emails.
For an experiment, Alan asked him to" waste" his time for five minutes during one of their sessions together. What the engineer ended up doing was relaxing, stting quietly and daydreaming. When he was finally able to admit that emotional reasons caused him to reject relaxing as waste of time, he began to look more critically at that way of thinking. Once he knew that relaxing was a good use of time, he became less serious about being busy and started enjoying each activity more. Previously he had been so busy doing that he had no time to have fun at anything. He began to do less and have more fun. When Alan saw the client about three years later, he still had as busy a schedule as ever, but he was able to balance his activity with relaxing so that he came back to work Monday morning not feeling tired out from a busy weekend but refreshed.
48. What did“doing nothing" mean to the space engineer at first?
A. Outdoor activities.
B.A waste of time.
C. Few daily schedules.
D. More family hours.
49. What made the engineer reject relaxing?
A. Social reasons.
B. Family reasons.
C. Emotional reasons.
D. Physical reasons.
50. What happened after the engineer learmed“doing nothing ?
A. He was not as busy as before.
B. He began to enjoy each activity more.
C. He started to do more of everything.
D. He did not have as much fun as before.
51. What can be iferered from the passage about“doing nothing" ?
A. It makes people enjoy more indoor activities.
B. It enables you to have more work time.
C. It serves to improve family relationship.
D. It helps you do things more efficiently.
Passage Five
Socrates is often referred to as one of the founders of Westerm philosophy,and yet he wrote nothing,estabished no school, and held no particular theories of his own. What he did do, however,was frequently ask the questions that interested him, and in doing so developed a new way of thinking. This method proceeds (展开) as a dialogue between opposing views, and it earmed him many enemies in Athens, where he lived.
As a young man, Socrates is believed to have studied natural philosophy, looking at the various explanations of the nature of the universe, but then became involved in the politics of the city-state and concerned with more down-to-earth moral issues, such as the nature of justice.
However, he was not interested in winning arguments, or arguing for the sake of making money. Nor was he seeking answers or explanations. He was simply examining the basis of the concepts we apply to ourselves (such as“good",“bad”, and “just" ),for he believed that understanding what we are is the first task of philosophy.
He was sentenced to death on charges of corrupting the young with bad ideas. But he also had many followers, and among them was Plato, who recorded Socrates’ ideas in the written works, called dialogues, in which Socrates sets about examining various ideas.
Socrates’ central concerm, then, was the examination of life, and it was his cruel questioning of people' s most valued beliefs ( largely about themselves) that earned him his enemies- but he remained committed to his task until the very end. According to the account of his defense at his trial, Socrates chose death rather than face a life of ignorance:“The life which is unexamined is not worth living”.
52. What is true about Socrates?
A. Socrates solved the problems of Westerm philosophy.
B. Socrates tried to find answers to his questions.
C. Socrates forced his enemies to accept his ideas.
D. Socrates cared about the meaning of life.
53. What is the most important task of philosophy according to Socrates?
A. Understanding our true self.
B. Examining some basic concepts.
C. Challenging the views of enemies.
D. Giving explanations for arguments.
54. What is the passage mainly about?
A. Socrates’beliefs of philosophy.
B. Socrates’outlook on death,
C. Socrates’influence on youths.
D. Socrates' questions about universe.
55. What is the tone of the passage?
A. Humorous.  B. Bitter. C. Sympathetic.  D. Objective.
V. Daily Conversation( 15 points)
Directions: Pick out appropriate expressions from the eigt choices below and complete the following dialogues by blackening the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet.
A. Sounds great!
B. This is our frst trip here.
C. When shall we set off?
D. Could you recommend some places for us?
E. You are welcome.     
F. What could I get?
G. Have great fun.
H. Is there anyhing interesting there?
Receptionist: Good momning!
Mr. Smith: Good morming! Today we are free for sightseeing.  _____56___Receptionist: Okay. Have you ever been here before?
Mr. Smith: No.____57____Receptionist: Then, I suggest that you visit the Ancient Cultural Street.
Mr. Smith:_____58___
Receptionist:Yes.The architectureis wonderful.It represents the folk style of the Qing Dynasty.
Mr. Smith:___59_____Thank you very much.
Receptionist:_____60___Have a good time!
VI. Writing( 25 points)
Directions :For this part, you are supposed to write an e-mail in about 100 - 120 words based on
the following situation. Remember to write it clearly. 
61.新学期伊始,你们班准备组织-场迎新晚 会,让同学们熟悉起来。你(Li Yuan)打算邀请外教
( Tim)来参加迎新晚会。请给他写-封e-mail,内容包括:
【解析】句意:现在没有人能够帮我,我需要独立完成这项工作。后半句是一个完整的句子,不缺少成分,“there being+名词”在这里是独立主格结构,充当状语,故选B。
【解析】句意:我在写作考试中没考好,因为写作主题不是我熟悉的。Be unfamiliar to sb.为固定短语,意为“对…..来说不熟悉”,故选A。
9.【答案】 C
【解析】句意:在会议上你最好讲大声点,以便每个人都可以听到你的声音。except that意为“除了…以外”,such that意为“使得,结果是”,in that意为“因为”,so that意为“以便于,为了”,故选D。
【解析】句意:皮特宁愿待在家看电视也不愿和他妈妈一起去购物。would rather do sth.than do sth.为固定搭配,意为“宁愿做……而不愿做……”,故选A
【解析】句意:等到两年后你回来,你的家乡会呈现一种新的风貌。by the time引导状语从句时,从句如果用一般现在时来表示将来的动作,主句用将来完成时,且这里是主动语态,故选A。
【解析】 句意:当你填写这张表格时,请确保你的名字填在空白区。vacant意为“空虚的”,bare意为“赤裸的,空的”,blank意为“空白的”,empty意为“空的”。blank space意为“空白区”,故选C。
【解析】句意:如果皮特过去告诉他的老师他在数学作业方面的困难,她一定会在考试前帮助他。这是对过去的虚拟,从句用“if+主语+had done”形式,主句用“主语+would have done”的形式,故选C。
【解析】句意:尽管困难重重,研究员仍继续她的研究。in case of意为“万一”,in spite of意为“尽管”,because of意为“因为”,instead of意为“代替”。结合句意,故选B。
【解析】本句句意为:事实上,大多数人使用的密码非常简单,几乎不需要花费什么力气就可以弄清楚。minor意为“次要的,较小的”,small意为“小的”,little意为“很少的”,tiny意为“微小的”,very little effort意为“很少的努力,几乎不花费力气”,故选C。
【解析】根据上下文可知,这里指的是“家庭成员的出生日期”。f gure意为“人物”,member意为“成员”,creature意为“生物”,character意为“性格”,故选B。
【解析】根据上下文可知,这里指的是“还有朋友、宠物、电影明星等的名宇”。as well as意为“还有”,符合题意,故选D。
【解析】本句句意为:这些程序能够把英语词典中的每个词都试一下。be capable of意为“能够”,故选B。
【解析】 空格后是对前面内容的举例说明,such as意为“例如”,故选A。
【解析】 本句句意为:你应该谨慎设置密码。choose passwords意为“设置密码”,故选C。
【解析】 文章最后一段提到,一个完美的卧室有利于睡眠,比如凉爽、黑暗、安静的卧室,安装遮光窗帘,戴眼罩、耳塞或白色噪音机,用舒适的床垫和枕头,故选C。
【解析】 文章第二段提到,相当多的孩子都出现了语言迟缓的现象,故排除B项。D项原文未提及,故排除。从第三、四、五段可知,医生无法治疗儿童语言迟缓,但是言语治疗师可以给这些儿童提供帮助,缓解这种症状,A项错误,故选C。
【应试指导 文章开头通过汤姆的故事,提出相当多的儿童都表现出了语言迟缓的症状,然后讲到为缓解这种症状,可以去看言语治疗师,接下来讲言语治疗师为缓解这个症状所做的努力,所以整篇文章国绕的中心就是“对于语言迟缓的孩子,我们能做些什么”,故选B。
【解析】 文章第六段提到,随着现代技术的发展,每个人都可以隐藏在短信、邮件等后面,只发他们想要让别人看到的内容,隐藏自己的真实情感,这样的社交媒介会造成极大的风险,故选C。
【解析】文章第三段第四句提到,航天工程师真正明白了“doing nothing”的含义,认为放松是对时间的很好利用,他开始不再让自己那么忙,享受每一项活动,故选B。
51.【答案】  D
【解析】从文章最后一段可知,三年后,航天工程师仍有忙碌的工作安排,但他学会了平衡工作时间与放松时间,星期一上班也不再无精打采,工作效率提高了,由此可知,“doing nothing”可以帮助人们提高做事的效率,故选D。
【解析】 文章开头提到苏格拉底没有自己的哲学理论,接着介绍了他主要关注的是什么,因此文章主要讲了苏格拉底的哲学观点,故选A.